#### Quiz Solutions, Data Structures and Algorithms, Week 10 -- Thurs Nov 29 2001

Assume the following Java code:

class Thing {

// Instance variables

Thing next;

int i;

String s;

// Constructor

public Thing(int x, String msg) { i = x; s = msg; next = null; }

}

public class ThingDemo {

public static void main(String argv[]) {

Thing thing1 = null, thing2 = null;

Thing list = null, temp = null, ref = null;

// code appears in numbered problems below ...

}

}

Assume the code fragments in the numbered problems below are executed in the main method in the order they appear. The questions in each problem refer to the program state after the fragment executes (and before the next fragement executes).

1.
thing1 = new Thing(99, "Hi");

thing2 = thing1;

a. How many Thing objects are there?

One. There is just one new expression (with one call to the constructor method for the Thing class). Both variables thing1 and thing2 refer to the same Thing object.

Write the value of each of the following expressions:
 b.  thing1.i     99 c.  thing1.s     "Hi" d.  thing2.i     99 e.  thing2.s     "Hi" f.  thing1.i == thing2.i     true g.  thing1.s == thing2.s     true h.  thing1 == thing2     true

Here thing1 and thing2 refer to the same object, so of course they are equal, and so are all their instance variables.

2.
thing2.s = "Bye";

Write the value of each of the following expressions:
 a.  thing1.s     "Bye" b.  thing2.s     "Bye" c.  thing1 == thing2     true

Here thing1 and thing2 refer to the same object, so changing an instance variable in thing2 also changes it in thing1.

3.
thing2 = new Thing(99, "Bye");

a. How many Thing objects are there?

Two. We have executed a second new expression. Now thing2 refers to the new object, which is different from the object referred to by thing1.

Write the value of each of the following expressions:
 b.  thing1.s     "Bye" c.  thing2.s     "Bye" d.  thing1 == thing2     false

Now thing1 == thing2 is false because these two variables refer to different objects, even though the contents of the two objects (the values of all their instance variables) are the same.

4.
thing2.s = "Foo";

Write the value of each of the following expressions:
 b.  thing1.s     "Bye" c.  thing2.s     "Foo" d.  thing1 == thing2     false

Now thing1 and thing2 refer to different objects, so changing an instance variable in thing2 does not change anything in thing1.

5.
list = new Thing(1, "A");

temp = new Thing(2, "B");

temp.next = list;

list = temp;

Write the value of each of the following expressions:
 a.  list.i     2 b.  list.s     "B" c.  list.next.i     1 c.  list.next.s     "A"

The first statement creates a Thing object and attaches it to list. The second statement creates another Thing object and the third and fourth statements insert it at the head of the list. Now list refers to the newer object, and list.i refers to its i instance variable. Also, list.next refers to the older object, and list.next.i refers to its i instance variable.

6.
temp = new Thing(3, "C");

temp.next = list;

list = temp;

This code creates another Thing object and inserts it at the head of the list.

System.out.print("list");

for (ref = list; ref != null; ref = ref.next) {

System.out.print(" -> " + ref.s);

}

System.out.println(".");

The for loop here traverses the list from the head to the tail, printing out the s instance variable in each object. The variable ref initially points at the head of the list. Each time the program executes the body of the loop, it points ref at the next object. When the program reaches the end of the list, ref becomes null and control exits from the loop.

1. Write the output that this fragment prints.

list -> C -> B -> A.

The object that was created last is at the head of the list, and the object that was created first is at the end of the tail.

2. Write a single Java statement (with no loops) that prints the value of the instance variable i in the object at the tail of the list.

System.out.println(list.next.next.i);

You cannot use ref to refer to the end of the list because now ref is null. Any attempt to use ref as a reference will cause the program to throw an exception.