Transportation Cost Analysis:

Techniques, Estimates and Implications


Todd Litman



Existing roadway transportation cost studies are reviewed. Twenty costs are defined and discussed, and existing estimates are summarized. "Best Guess" cost estimates are provided for 11 travel modes under urban peak, urban off-peak, and rural travel conditions. This framework is used to compare costs per passenger mile of different modes for planning and policy analysis. The implications of current cost distribution on economic efficiency, economic development, equity and land use are explored. Case studies are used to demonstrate how cost estimates can be applied to specific problems. Recommendations are provided for reforming current transport decision making. This 235 page document is fully referenced. It incorporates and builds on existing North American and international research. It should be useful to transportation professionals, planners, economists, policy analysts, and environmentalists.