Editorial Bob Donna Leo Todd Rosette Claudia Chris Melonie Tim Raul Virtual Seminar Artcles
Articles of interest
SuAnne led Pine Ridge to a State "A" Championship in 1989,making Pine Ridge the only native american girls team to win a state championship in South Dakota.Here is a story of her leadership:
In the fall of 1988, the Pine Ridge Lady Thorpes went to Lead to play a basketball game. SuAnne was a full member of the team by then. She was a freshman, fourteen years old. Getting ready in the locker room, the Pine Ridge girls could hear the din from the fans. They were yelling fake-indian war cries, a "woo-woo-woo" sound. The usual plan for the pre-game warm-up was for the visiting team to run onto the court in a line, take a lap or two around the floor, shoot some baskets, and then go to their bench at courtside. After that, the home team would come out and do the same, and then the game would begin. Usually the Thorpes lined up for their entry more or less according to height, which meant that senior Doni De Cory, one of the tallest, went first. As the team waited in the hallway leading from thelocker room, the heckling got louder. The Lead fans were yelling epithets like "squaw" and "gut-eater." Some were waving food stamps, a reference to the reservation's receiving federal aid. Others yelled, "Where's the cheese?"the joke being that if Indians were lining up, it must be to get commodity cheese. The Lead high school band had joined in, with fake-Indian drumming and a fake-Indian tune. Doni De Cory looked out the door and told her teammates, "I can't handle this." SuAnne quickly offered to go first in her place. She was so eager that Doni became suspicious. "Don't embarrass us," Doni told her. SuAnne said, "I won't. I won't embarrass you." Doni gave her the ball and SuAnne stood first in line. She came running onto the court dribbling the basketball, with her teammates running behind. On the court, the noise was deafeningly loud. SuAnne went right down the middle; but instead of running a full lap, she suddenly stopped when she got to center court. her teammates were taken by surprise,and some bumped into one another. Coach Zimiga at the rear of the line did not know why they had stopped. SuAnne turned to Doni De Cory and tossed her the ball. Then she stepped into the jump-ball circle at center court, in front of the Lead fans. She unbuttoned her warm-up jacket, took it off, draped it over her shoulders, and began to do the Lakota shawl dance.
SuAnne knew all the traditional dances she had competed in many powwows as a little girl and the dance she chose is a young woman's dance, graceful and modest and show-offy all at the same time. "I couldn't believe it she was powwowin', like, 'get down!'" Doni De Cory recalled. "And then she started to sing." SuAnne began to sing in Lakota, swaying back and forth in the jump-ball circle, doing the shawl dance, using her warm-up jacket for a shawl. The crowd went completely silent. "All that stuff the Lead fans were yelling it was like she reversed it somehow," a teammate said. In the sudden quiet, all you could hear was her Lakota song. SuAnne stood up, dropped her jacket, took the ball from Doni De Cory, and ran a lap around the court dribbling expertly and fast. The fans began to cheer and applaud. She sprinted to the basket, went up in the air, and laid the ball through the hoop, with the fans cheering loudly now. Of course, Pine Ridge went on to win the game.
"It was funny," Doni De Cory says, "but after that game the relationship between Lead and us was tremendous. When we played Lead again, the games were really good, and we got to know some of the girls on the team. Later,when we went to a tournament and Lead was there, we were hanging out with the Lead girls and eating pizza with them. We got to know some of their parents, too. What SuAnne did made a lasting impression and changed the whole situation with us and Lead. We found out there are some really good people in Lead."
Who will be the peace heroes of the 21st Century? It's up to our youth today to make our communities
a better place.
Photographs by Guy Kloppenburg
The gym where SuAnne scored 67 points in one game.
From Sarah Pedersen:
I've added a password for Ethnic Newswatch (and Genderwatch) to the list of passwords for off campus use. Ethnic Newswatch includes full-text publications produced BY ethnic communities. To find articles from indigenous communities choose "Native People" as the ethnic group. Here's their description of what you'll get from that search:
- Native People: Independent and tribal publications of any of the Indian Nations as well as Eskimos or Aleuts in the United States and Canada and indigenous peoples worldwide.
Titles include AIQ, Akwesasne Notes, Alberta Sweetgrass, Buffalo Spirit, Cherokee Advocate, Cherokee Observer, Cherokee Phoenix and Indian Advocate, Cherokee Voice, Cultural Survival Quarterly, Indian Report, Fort Apache Scout, Indian Country Today, Native American Times, Native Americas, Native Nevadan, Native Voice, Navajo Nation Today, Navajo Times, News from Indian Country, Ojibwe Akiing, Ojibwe News, Oklahoma Indian Times, Pequot Times, Seminole Tribune, Tribal College Journal of American Indian Higher Education, Whispering Wond, Wind River News, and Windspeaker.
Please share this information with your students.
Ethnic Newswatch and GenderWatch
username: Evergreen State
Bibliography of the History of Art
User I.D.: egreen
Grove Dictionary of Art
User I.D.: egreen
User I.D.: avx43
User I.D.: 1828017
User I.D.: evergreen reference
User I.D.: BMVQNGR6M9
Love, hunger, moneyby Sherman Alexie
I’ve just returned from the Spokane Tribe's casino-and-gambling mecca at the western edge of our reservation, and I may have to enter the federal Witness Relocation Program because I have seen and know too much. I couldn't believe it. I had gone there expecting to see a few slot machines and some sweaty small-town gamblers. Instead, there were dozens of suspicious-looking men in expensive suits shaking hands with our Spokane tribal councilmen.
"It's the Mafia," I whispered into the tape recorder that I had carefully hidden beneath the bill of my Washington Redskins baseball hat. Risking life and limb, I maneuvered closer to the wiseguys and councilmen. They barely noticed me, of course, because nobody, neither Indian or white, ever pays attention to poets.
"The Family really admires what you're doing out there," one of the wiseguys said to the councilmen. His diction was perfect. "We believe your reservation could become a lucrative member of our network."
My true identity could've been discovered at any time. Confidently, I ordered a Diet Pepsi without ice, shaken, not stirred.
"Where do you want us to sign?" the councilmen asked and took out the pens that they all saved for special occasions.
"Sign here. And initial here and here."
Unable to read the fine print, I inched closer and closer - too close, in fact.
"What seems to be the problem?" one of the wiseguys asked as he grabbed me by the front of my Atlanta Braves T-shirt.
"Who is this young man?" the head wiseguy asked.
"Him?" the councilmen asked, and looked at me. "He's just a poet."
"Prove it," the head wiseguy demanded of me.
"My love is like a red, red rose," I blurted. I waited for the response. Had all my years of creative-writing classes finally paid off? The head wiseguy looked me over, slapped my face gently, pinched my cheek.
"Leave him alone," he said to the wiseguy holding me. "He's just a poet. Give him a dollar and a free drink."
I took my dollar and voucher for another Pepsi and went my way. However, I had time to read the fine print on one of those contracts and it said the terms of this agreement would be valid as long as the grasses grow, the winds blow, and the rivers flow.
Help me. I'm writing this from a seedy hotel room in an eastern Washington city. I know too much. I know that the Mafia is on the Spokane Indian Reservation and that they're making treaties. I know the Mafia will break those treaties and only the United States Government is allowed to break treaties with Indians. I'm caught in a crossfire. Help me. I'm just a poet.
Gambling has always been about trust and the loss of trust. It's never been about money. Gambling is nothing new for the Indians.
Gambling is traditional and began when Columbus arrived in our country.
Indians started to roll the dice every time we signed another treaty but we've always been the losers because the dice were loaded and the treaties broken by random design. Now we've got our own game of Reservation Roulette and I'd advise the faithful to always bet on red.
However, I have the distinct feeling that America is not placing any bets on the survival of Indians. America will not even allow Indians to become citizens of the 20th century. We're trapped somewhere between Custer and Columbus, between the noble and savage. I've heard it said that Indians shouldn't become involved in high-stakes gambling because it tarnishes our noble heritage. Personally, I've never believed in the nobility of poverty.
Personally, I believe in the nobility of breakfast, lunch and dinner.
Indians need money.
Forget the discussions about self-hate or cultural dislocation. Forget the loss of land and language. Most Indians cannot even begin to think about those kinds of complicated issues. They don't have the time. They have to spend most of their time worrying about where their next meal is coming from. They worry about how love and hunger can get so mixed up. Most Indians don't have time or energy enough to listen to me or you.
As Billie Holiday said, "You've got to have something to eat and a little love in your life before you can hold still for anybody's damned sermon."
Indians need the money, Indians need the money, the money because we all need all of us (meaning me and you) need the money. Indians need it more because we have less of everything except our stories and poems but you can't buy a can of Spam with a metaphor.
We need the money, the money because money is America's religion, because money is prayer and hymn, because a dollar bill can fill our empty stomachs like a good savior will.
I've also heard so much talk about the morality of gambling. How immoral is the Washington State Lottery? How immoral is Grand Coulee Dam? How immoral are the beer and tobacco companies?
Those questions have their answers buried somewhere deep in the heart of capitalism, and the casino on the Spokane Indian Reservation is proof that the Spokanes have embraced capitalism. There was a demand for a product (gambling) and the Spokane Indians have produced a supply (casino).
Does that frighten me? Of course. But I think it's more important to ask the non-Indians why they are frightened of it.
Is it because of the imagined threat of gangster influence? The profits from reservation gambling are small change on a Mafia scale.
Is it because of the supposed threat to the noble image of Indians? There isn't much non-Indian complaint about the Washington Redskins or the fact that Tonto is still monosyllabic on television every day of the
Is it really because of the immorality of gambling? Capitalism has always rewarded immorality, regardless of race, gender or religion.
I think it has more to do with power. As Indians make money we also gain power. As we gain power we develop a political voice. We can then use that voice to demand that treaties be honored.
We can demand that this country be held accountable for what it did to us and hat it continues to do to us. We can make those demands because we'll have the power. We can make those demands because we'll have the money. We'll have the money that used to belong to you.
The writer is a Spokane Coeur d'Alene Indian, a poet, and the author of -
"The Lone Ranger and Tonto: Fistfight in Heaven” and other books.
Concept Paper — Proposal to establish a "Center for Advanced Studies in Native American Self-determination"Summary Statement:
The Evergreen State College proposes to design and create a multidisciplinary program of academic research and practice that is focused on the theme of Native American Self-determination. Native American Self-determination has now become both the prevailing policy that informs the relationship between Indian nations and the US Government and the dominant paradigm for native intellectuals, social and political activists. As public policy this means that Indian tribes and communities are recognized under federal law to possess the fundamental right to govern themselves and their lands which are collectively referred to in US law as, "Indian Country." The US Congress officially embraced this policy when it enacted the 1975 Indian Self-determination and Education Assistance Act but only after a prolonged, hard fought struggle by Indian political leaders. As an intellectual paradigm, self-determination represents the space within which native people are free to work on their vision of future tribal societies. Such self-determining societies will be shaped not be the inexorable forces of assimilation or corporate globalization but by the enduring values and belief systems of ageless tribal cultures. Developing an independent intellectual foundation for Native American studies The story of this struggle by the tribes to determine their own destiny in the face of over 100 years of misguided attempts by the US Government policy makers to force Indian people to accept assimilation into the mainstream of American Society and to abandon their ancestral homelands along with their cultural ways is retold with each new generation. In this story Indian people from all parts of Indian Country share a common experience of struggling to survive as Indians in the face of severe economic and social stress, often under siege by the surrounding Euro-American society. Every tribal community also has its own unique story, a precious inheritance entrusted to succeeding generation by their elders and other culture bearers. With each new generation, their efforts to reconcile the demands of modern life and the struggle for economic viability within native communities while retaining culture and traditional ways adds a new chapter to their story. In the context of this living drama of the struggle for self-determination by the native people, many native scholars have come to recognize that they share a unique role and responsibility. Working in the protected space of academia, they play the role of teacher, researcher and writer or storyteller. Native scholars have been part of a movement, beginning in the late 1960’s, to create ethnic studies centers as a response to the opening within academia created by the larger Civil Rights Movement. Such centers focused their research and scholarship on the distinctive needs and issues of minority peoples in US society. On college campuses where there existed a critical mass of native students and academic leadership, Native American Studies Centers were established as a place for native scholarship within academia. This paper is based on the hypothesis that the collective and accumulated experience of these native studies centers, and other academic programs such as have existed at Evergreen State College, demonstrates that there is now a pressing need for more advanced studies. More and more native scholars have begun to acknowledge the need to formulate and articulate an independent intellectual foundational theory for Native American Studies as part of such advanced work. Such a theoretical approach would serve to give expression to a native world-view and philosophy that is distinct from the Eurocentric world-view that infuses the academia of the Western World. For example, it is recognized that the curriculum offered by Native American Studies academic programs is, in some cases, based primarily on books and other written material that simply describe the experience of colonization/forced assimilation and its continuing impact on tribal societies. Scant literature is available that tells the Native American story from the point of view of native participants or interprets the impacts of US colonialism in terms of the vision that has impelled tribal societies to survive. The traditional knowledge and belief systems of native people are too often presented in the university as an object of study rather than as integral to an alternative world-view that is legitimate in its own right. Too often, writers, artists and social critics question the authenticity of modern tribal cultural practices and beliefs according to standards of authenticity that are taken from the distant past. Moreover, despite the fact that tribal communities have survived more than 200 years of contact with American society, many social and literary critics, native and non-native, still question their ability to survive in the future as culturally distinct societies. It is evident that at least some native scholars have acknowledged that there has not been sufficient work on developing theories or a school of thought that can articulate, in relevant and contemporary terms, a coherent intellectual structure to the native world-view. They have pointed out the need for theory that can serve as a foundation for the next generation of native scholars as well as the source of a rationale for the continuing viability of tribal societies in a future global society. Such theoretical work should take place in collaboration with the cultural, political and social leadership of the tribes to insure that such scholarship is grounded in the reality of tribal life and in the goals and aspirations of the Indian people. In this context, the dominant paradigm will be Native American Self-determination and this will, in turn, inform the development of native intellectual theory. Just as tribal leaders in past generations have fought for the right of self-determination in political and public policy forums, now the native scholar is called upon to fight for recognition of intellectual self-determination in the cause of developing independent theory as the foundation of native knowledge, wisdom and philosophy. Kaupapa Maori — Lessons learned from the Maori experience in New Zealand Maori writer and intellectual, Linda Tuhiwai Smith, has effectively described the phenomena of de-colonization and the experiences of native Maori scholars in New Zealand in terms that will clearly resonant with Native American scholars. In explaining the importance of "theory" to indigenous scholars, Smith explains; "Research is linked in all disciplines to theory. Research adds to, is generated from, creates or broadens our theoretical understanding. Indigenous peoples have been, in many ways, oppressed by theory. Any consideration of the ways our origins have been examined, our histories recounted, our arts analyzed, our cultures dissected, measured, torn apart and distorted back to us will suggest that theories have not looked sympathetically or ethically at us. Writing research is often considered marginally more important than writing theory, providing it results in tangible benefits for farmers, economists, industries and sick people. For indigenous peoples, most of the theorizing has been driven by anthropological approaches. These approaches have shown enormous concern for our origins as peoples and for aspects of our linguistic and material culture. The development of theories by indigenous scholars which attempt to explain our existence in contemporary society (as opposed to the ‘traditional’ society constructed under modernism) has only just begun. Not all these theories claim to be derived from some ‘pure’ sense of what it means to be indigenous, nor do they claim to be theories which have been developed in a vacuum separated from any association with the civil and human rights movements, other nationalist struggles or other theoretical approaches. What is claimed, however, is that new ways of theorizing by indigenous scholars are grounded in a real sense of, and sensitivity towards, what it means to be an indigenous person. (Pages 37-48) …At the very least it (theory) helps makes sense of reality. It enables us to make assumptions and predictions about the world in which we live. It contains within it a method or methods for selecting and arranging, for prioritizing and legitimating what we see and do. Theory enables us to deal with contradictions and uncertainties. Perhaps more significantly, it gives us space to plan, to strategize, to take greater control over our resistances. (Page 38) She goes on to add an important point to be considered by indigenous scholars as they consider applying research methodologies drawn from a de-colonization perspective. "Decolonization, however, does not mean and has not meant a total rejection of all theory or research or Western knowledge. Rather, it is about centering our concerns and world views and then coming to know and understand theory and research from our own perspectives and for our own purposes. (Page 39) Smith and her colleagues refer to the term "Kaupapa Maori", loosely translated as, "informing with the worldview of the Maori", as a philosophical foundation for their academic scholarship and the theory that informs their practice as researchers. Again, because of the parallels for Native American scholars who contemplate developing a coherent theory for Native American studies, the Maori experience deserves extensive consideration. Kaupapa Maori has been applied across a wide range of projects and enterprises. …Kathy Irwin characterizes Kaupapa Maori as research which is ‘culturally safe’, which involves the ‘mentorship’ of elders, which is culturally relevant and appropriate while satisfying the rigors of research and which is undertaken by a Maori researcher, not a researcher who happens to be Maori. …Irwin also grounds her work in a ‘paradigm that stems from a Maori worldview. Russell Bishop writes that Kaupapa Maori 'addresses the prevailing ideologies of cultural superiority which pervades our (New Zealand) social, economic and political institutions’. (Page 184)…. Graham Smith, who has written extensively about Kaupapa Maori initiatives, summarizes these by saying that Kaupapa Maori research: 1 is related to ‘being Maori’; 2 are connected to Maori philosophy and principles; 3 takes for granted the validity and legitimacy of Maori, the importance of Maori language and culture; and 4 is concerned with the struggle for autonomy over our own cultural well being. Smith locates Kaupapa Maori research within the wider project of Maori struggles for self-determination and draws from this project a set of elements which, he argues, can be found in all the different projects associated with Kaupapa Maori. The general significance of these principles, however, is that they have evolved from within many of the well-tried practices of Maori as well as being tied to a clear and coherent rationale. (Page 185) …Whenau (family) is one of several aspects of Maori philosophy, values and practices which are brought to the centre in Kaupapa Maori research. Tuakana Nepe argues that Kaupapa Maori is derived from very different epistemological and metaphysical foundations and it is these which give Kaupapa Maori its distinctiveness from Western philosophies. In other words, there is more to Kaupapa Maori than our history under colonialism or our desires for self-determination. We have a different epistemological tradition which frames the way we see the world, the way we see ourselves in it, the questions we ask and the solutions which we seek. It is larger than the individuals in it and the specific ‘moment’ in which we are currently engaged. (Page 187) These excerpts from Linda Smith’s analysis demonstrate that constructing an indigenous intellectual theory of research and scholarship, drawn from the values, practices and traditions of Maori culture, is closely linked to their struggle for self-determination in the context of a colonial experience. She and her colleagues share a great bond as indigenous scholars who are consciously serving as a bridge between the Maori community, which has come to regard academic research and researchers with great misgiving, and academia and through academia to the public policy arena. Clearly, for Native American scholars, despite great differences in culture and geography, there is much to learn by studying the Maori experience. How would an advanced studies center work? The core element of an advanced studies center would be the so-called "think tank". This is a term coined during WW II to designate a highly secure room or building where scientists, engaged in confidential research projects involving military secrets, could meet and freely discuss their ideas and findings. The Rand Corporation, a private firm established in the early 1940’s and specializing in military research, is considered the arch-type think tank. Since then the concept has evolved to generally mean any exercise or project where the participants, usually scholars or specialists of some kind, gather together on a regular basis to discuss and share their ideas around a particular theme, subject or policy. There is an expectation that such deliberations will advance the thinking of those engaged in a particular field of study and that such advancements will be shared, disseminated through public lectures or speeches, and (usually) published so as to make them available to the public. Think tanks may be short term or ongoing depending on the purpose and goals of the sponsors. A think tank comprised of native scholars focused on the development of a theoretical foundation for Native American studies around the theme of self-determination would be the core element of the proposed Advanced Studies Center. It could be convened for a specific period of time or established on an ongoing or open-ended basis. To begin, native scholars would be issued an open invitation to participate in a series of open forums based on their interest in making a contribution to the development of such theoretical work. If resources have been made available, stipends or fellowships would be offered to native scholars to enable them to dedicate a set period of time to participate in the think tank. In order to achieve critical mass, at least five fellows should be assembled to work together but, in order to avoid becoming cumbersome, an upper limit would probably be set at not more than fifteen. A small committee of senior native scholars could then be convened to serve as a planning committee to define the parameters for such fellowships and to create a process to review proposals and make selections from among applicants. The expectation would be that the research resulting from the individual fellows as well as from group seminars or workshops open to all native scholars would be shared not only within members of the think tank or advanced studies center but also with the public. Native scholars who are working with the Center would be encouraged to volunteer as guest speakers or lecturers at various colleges and universities, including tribal colleges. The scholars’ written work would be published and disseminated and the Center would periodically convene public forums around topics or thematic areas as a means of sharing the work of the Center with other native scholars as well as the Native American pubic outside of academia. The Center for Advanced studies in Native American Self-determination should be designed as a national and even international network of native scholars. If Evergreen State College is successful in taking the lead to initiate the Center, every other Native American or Indigenous Studies academic program at colleges and universities throughout the US and Canada would be invited to participate and to serve as part of a continent-wide network. Internet technology provides standard mechanisms for linking such scholars through wide-area and local-area networks, on-line discussion rooms and web-sites that contain secure points for sharing documents. Such Internet contact can be supplemented by video-conferencing technology combined with physical meetings in forums, seminars and workshops. There is significant common ground around the issues, concerns and goals of tribal nations in the US and Canada. Native American and First Nation scholars should have the opportunity to work together around issues of indigenous theory that is also tribal specific. The common ground as well as the differences that the tribes in the US and Canada share can be appreciated more readily in contrast to the Maori experience. The Maori, who share common descent from ancestors who voyaged from Polynesia over a millennium ago, share a common language and culture. The tribal peoples in North America, on the other hand, identify with different tribal groups who, despite some regional cultural and language commonalties, self-identify as distinct people. These very real differences will play an important role in the work of the Center and dictate that we have as broad a base as possible of participation and representation from the different tribal cultures in both the US and Canada. Cultural Guidelines for Native Scholarship The Maori model also includes a template for the role of tribal elders and other cultural bearers in providing guidance to their scholarship. Among the tribes in North America, the template would also include each tribe’s unique origin story, the role of special and sacred places, and a shared ethic that places the welfare of the tribe, the collective, before the individual. Each tribal story includes descriptions of their strategies for resistance-to-assimilation, to colonialism, to oppression. Most Native American scholars acknowledge that such themes permeate the culture and story of their own communities and that there is a need to establish and maintain a real connection between those working in academia and tribal communities. It has been suggested that congruence with tribal cultural and social values should be a standard of integrity for native intellectual theory. However, it is not proposed that the freedom to speculate and to test new ideas or to challenge established ideas should be restricted within an endeavor such as the proposed advanced studies center or, more broadly, the practice of native scholarship. The reality is that native culture and the social values of native communities, indeed, their distinct world-view will constitute the parameters for native scholarship just as Western Euro-American culture and social values are the context for scholarship within Western academia. Native American Self-determination: the prevailing paradigm While culture and social values contribute to the parameters for the practice of scholarship in any given society, a community of scholars may also freely agree to work within the context of a specific paradigm or school of thought. In this case, it is proposed that the paradigm of "self-determination" provide the school of thought within which native scholars may undertake the development of native intellectual theories. As noted at the beginning of this paper, "self-determination" is both the core concept and the dominant public policy that guides native people in the search for their destiny. As the Maori have explained, self-determination is the counter to colonialism and imperialism including the contemporary form of these "isms", neoliberalism. Anticipated Outcomes of Advanced Studies in Native American Self-determination For today’s Maori scholars, Kaupapa Maori theory is both the point of departure and the context for their work across a wide range of disciplines. A second generation of such scholars, following the pioneering work of Linda Smith, Graham Smith, Ranginui Walker and Mason Durie among others, are now engaged in advanced studies, including doctoral work, guided by Kaupapa Maori theory. Their practice of research and scholarship on key issues for Maori people is guided by the policy of Maori social, cultural, economic and political self-determination within the multicultural society of the country of New Zealand. Maori scholars and writers, participants in the Kaupapa Maori school, have published leading edge books, papers and articles that in turn have provided more junior scholars with guidance and inspiration. This scholarship has infused Maori society with new levels of hope and self-confidence that as a socially and economically diverse community they may establish an ever more secure place for themselves. They are consciously engaged in actualizing a vision of a Maori nation within a nation-state and as part of the global family of indigenous nations. Native American scholars, if they consciously and deliberately begin to work together in a national network, a school of Native American Self-determination, certainly have the potential to similarly be engaged with the future development of their tribal nations. An advanced studies center would serve as a focus and sponsor of such work and, as a project, would provide an unparalleled opportunity for Native scholars. Under such an umbrella, native scholars would be able to interact, to share ideas and to intensively work together to formulate a vision of Native American Self-determination in such arenas as the political economy, cultural revitalization, environmental sustainability, language revitalization and social structures. Their work would certainly benefit future generations of native scholars and would certainly be relevant to the economic, political, social and cultural struggles of their people. As their scholarship is published its impact will have a wide ripple effect throughout the native communities. Curriculum offered to native students at the elementary and secondary school level will be enhanced, the intellectual dialogue of native activists will be stimulated and the future directions of native leadership will be impacted. Planning; the first step in establishing the think tank An endeavor such as outlined in this concept paper can only succeed if it is based on a thorough and well-thought-out plan. Such a plan should include examination of similar models of scholarship such as the Woodrow Wilson Center at Princeton University or the Center for International and Strategic Studies at Georgetown University. A planning committee comprised of senior native scholars along with native elders from a non-academic environment should be recruited to serve as a resource to Evergreen project staff and provide overall direction to the project. The planning process need not exceed six months but it should result in a blueprint that identifies the different goals of the project, a timeline for organization and definition of outcomes. The project may be planned for a specific time frame or be open-ended based on the planning committee’s wisdom and experience in relation to their estimate of the time it would take to achieve the goals of the project. "Why locate an advanced studies center on Native American self-determination at Evergreen?" The founders of The Evergreen State College established five foci for teaching and learning at Evergreen that continue to serve as guiding policies: Interdisciplinary learning, Learning across significant differences, Personal engagement with learning, Linking theory with practice and Collaborative learning. Consequently, the Evergreen approach to Native American studies has always involved interdisciplinary, team taught classes and often includes immersing students in current issues or, through applied research, in direct participation in community programs. Academic programs are based on curriculum that provides students with a background in the history of relationships between the native peoples and the different generations of immigrants to the Pacific Northwest. A constant theme from year to year has been the unique culture, social traditions, artistic expression and relationships of the native peoples of this geographical area to their environment. Following this tradition, in 1995 Evergreen became the first college or university in the US to build a Longhouse on its campus. The Longhouse building was designed with the help and participation of Coastal Salish tribal elders and cultural experts including the contribution of cedar log beams and other furnishings. The Longhouse includes a small staff who function as a public service center, The Longhouse Education and Culture Center, who are dedicated to organizing and offering educational and community programs in Northwest Native Art and Culture for tribal community members as well as Evergreen students. In addition, the Longhouse serves as a popular location for regular college classes and events. Several colleges and universities in the Northwest, including Portland State University and the University of Victoria have sent teams to study the Longhouse as a model strategy for community outreach programs and as a means to bring the community into the academy. The Longhouse is the most visible manifestation of a group of five multifaceted academic and research programs that were brought together in 1998 as independent elements under an umbrella designation, the Native American and World Indigenous Peoples Studies group. In addition to the Longhouse, NAWIPS includes three academic programs: (1) an on-campus undergraduate class in native studies offered each year but around different thematic topics, (2) the off-campus Reservation Based Community Determined (RBCD) academic degree program and, (3) a newly instituted Master in Public Administration in Tribal Government program. The final component of NAWIPS is the Northwest Indian Applied Research Institute, a public service center created in 1999 with funding from the State and the Paul Allen Foundation. The Institute is designed to assist the academic programs by providing opportunities for students to directly engage in research projects to are undertaken at the request of tribal organizations in order to assist on vital and timely issues of public policy development. The Institute follows research protocols that are quite similar to the approach described by Dr. Linda Tuhiwai Smith in Decolonizing Methodologies; Research and Indigenous Peoples, and publishes a summary of all its research projects and reports on its webpage: www.niari.evergreen.edu. These NAWIPS programs at Evergreen are staffed by fourteen experienced Native American professionals working as faculty and administrators. This results in a ratio of approximately 14 Native American faculty and staff to an overall total at Evergreen of 500, a ratio that compares very favorably with all colleges and universities in the US and Canada, including tribal colleges. The RBCD program has also been nationally recognized as a model for colleges or universities desiring to deliver an undergraduate curriculum to native students who are place-bound within their own communities. The RBCD program has, since its inception in 1990, graduated over 200 tribal students from the Makah, Quinault, Skokomish, Squaxin Island, Muckleshoot, Nisqually and Puyallup tribes. Most of these graduates are individuals who would not have otherwise attended college but, upon graduation, have stayed in their communities to serve as leaders and public servants. Evergreen’s most recent academic program, undertaken at the request of tribal leaders, is the new MPA in Tribal Government that enrolled its first class in September of 2002. This new graduate program, the first of its kind in the US or Canada, is designed to provide professional training for tribal members who plan to work as managers or administrators in tribal governments or in agencies that work extensively with tribes. As an expression of their support for this new TESC initiative and, we believe, of their confidence in TESC, local Puget Sound tribes recently contributed over $150,000 to enhance the funding for the Tribal MPA program when State budget cuts to the College would have delayed its start-up. Although it is too early to assess the Tribal MPA program, it represents another step on the road to Native American Self-determination that the Evergreen State College, working in collaboration with tribal community, education and cultural leaders, is committed to traveling. If the College is now successful in creating an advanced studies program it would be as a result of the critical mass of native faculty and administrative staff whose inspiration has been from within the native community rather than the conventional self-interest of academia. Our enduring relationships to tribal communities across the entire spectrum of our scholarly practice have consistently given direction to our work and have been the basis for our setting of program priorities. A recent example of the kind of academic work that results from working within tribal partnerships is the development by TESC of a project proposal to the National Endowment for the Humanities. Tribal leaders have repeatedly expressed the need to develop curriculum that provides accurate historical, cultural and political information about tribes at all levels of education, including higher education. In response, the leadership of the three TESC public service centers, the Northwest Indian Applied Research Institute, the Longhouse Education and Cultural Center, and the Washington Center for the Improvement of Undergraduate Education joined in a partnership to author a curriculum development proposal to the NEH. The group designed an interdisciplinary, Humanities institute series (three years), for faculty at two-and four-year higher education institutions that will enable participants to infuse into their curriculum the perspectives of Native scholars and culture bearers from the Pacific Northwest. Over the course of the NEH project, curricula will be developed, implemented, and evaluated as a critical approach to the teaching of the Humanities that includes Native American perspectives. The project will be anchored in ten-day summer institutes in 2003, 2004, and 2005 taught by an interdisciplinary team of Native scholars and culture bearers. In summary, it is proposed that The Evergreen State College should serve as the host for the proposed Center for Advanced Studies in Native American Self-determination because of the demonstrated ability of this institution to create and sustain relationships with tribal communities. These relationships have effectively and genuinely established the guidelines and parameters for our scholarly practice, our research and our goals as an institution. These relationships constitute an invaluable resource to the College and will ensure that, as we embark on this endeavor, we will remain in tune with the cultural wellspring of the tribes, the inspiration of their elders and the direction of their leaders. Conclusion As native scholars and writers such as Elizabeth Cook-Lynn and Vine Deloria have pointed out, our future and our destiny as native people utterly depends on the ability of tribal nations to survive and thrive in the future. If the tribes cease to exist as viable societies, as cultural well-springs and as independent political entities then individual native people are all adrift in an ocean of non-tribal societies whose values, traditions, practices, whose core world view is antithetical to their tribal identities. Thus, the role and responsibility of native scholars to develop intellectual theories that explain, justify and support the development and functioning of tribal societies in the face of contemporary political, philosophical, social and economic challenges becomes increasingly vital and important. In this context, an initiative such as the proposed advanced studies center for Native American self-determination can be seen as a timely and, perhaps even essential, step for native scholars. Prepared by: Alan Parker, Faculty The Evergreen State College, (360) 867-5075; mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org
November 4, 2002
The Times - CasinosFrom Laura
Just in case people haven't seen these unfortunate articles in this week's issue of time, I thought I'd pass it along. Kristina wrote an outstanding letter to Time and sent it to them yesterday. I sent a letter last night.
IF you are so inclined, Time needs to hear from as many people as possible. The articles are slanted, full of holes in information and designed to elicit anti-Indian sentiment. The article totally avoids Washington state, I think because to have reported on the situation here, would have altered the message that the authors wanted to send. They state boldy that American Indians do not pay federal taxes. They imply that all successful gaming is operated by tribes whose Indian heritage is suspect. They state that claims that gaming dollars support infrastructure and social services is false. They focus on the non-Native financial backers some tribes have used to start their operations claiming that only these backers will realize profit from the casinos.
This is the first of two weeks of coverage on the issue.
There are associated stories that you can link to in the left hand column that are also important to read
Hello all -
Indian Country Today has number of articles that challenge TIME magazine's articles on Indian gaming. Check them out - also, remember that there is another article coming from TIME. It seems that tribal leaders were quite caught off guard by the "investigative reporting" of the authors, who compare tribes to corporations and don't have even a basic understanding of tribal sovereignty.
Also, the New York Times ran an editorial yesterday praising the TIME article....